Thyroid gland is a butterfly shape gland located in front of the neck. It secretes a hormone called T3 and T4 with the help of iodine. Secretions of these hormones are regulated by TSH, another hormone secreted by pituitary gland in brain. Problem in thyroid gland could arise from decreased or increased secretion of thyroxine hormone and enlargement of thyroid gland that could be benign or cancerous enlargement.


The common thyroid diseases include:

1. Hypothyroidism

2. Hyperthyroidism

3. Thyroid cancer

Thyroid disease can affect from new born baby to elderly. Thyroid disease in pregnancy is a major concern as it can affect both the mother and fetus. A thyroid disorders have varied symptoms and high index of suspicion is required to diagnose this disease at the earliest. The common features include weight gain or weight loss, menstrual problems, infertility, short stature, constipation, hair fall, dry skin, poor academic performance, depression, eye changes and neck swelling.

Thyroid disease is easily diagnosed by simple blood tests. The tests should be done in state of art laboratory equipments for the best results. Nuclear scans are a useful tool in the diagnosis of thyroid disease. Radioiodine treatment has revolutionized treatment of hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancers. Radioiodine therapy is a safe nonsurgical modality of treatment of increased thyroid function.